Membrane Distillation

QSDsan: Quantitative Sustainable Design for sanitation and resource recovery systems

This module is developed by:

This module is under the University of Illinois/NCSA Open Source License. Please refer to for license details.

class qsdsan.sanunits._membrane_distillation.MembraneDistillation(ID='', ins: Sequence[AbstractStream] | None = None, outs: Sequence[AbstractStream] | None = (), thermo=None, init_with='WasteStream', include_construction=True, lifetime={'Membrane': 7920}, influent_pH=8.16, target_pH=10, N_S_ratio=2, m2_2_m3=0.0008333333333333334, Dm=2.28e-05, porosity=0.9, thickness=7.000000000000001e-05, tortuosity=1.2, Henry=1.6100000000000002e-05, Ka=1.7500000000000002e-05, capacity=6.01, membrane_price=93.29)

Membrane distillation recovers nitrogen as ammonia sulfate based on vapor pressure difference across the hydrophobic membrane. Water flux across membrane is ignored.

  • ins (Iterable(stream)) – influent, acid, base, mem_in.

  • outs (Iterable(stream)) – ammonium sulfate, ww, mem_out.

  • influent_pH (float) – Influent pH.

  • target_pH (float) – Target pH for membrane distillation.

  • N_S_ratio (float) – mol(N) to mol(S) ratio.

  • m2_2_m3 (float) – m2 to m3 factor, 1/specific surface area, [m3/m2].

  • Dm (float) – NH3 molecular diffusivity in air, [m2/s].

  • porosity (float) – Membrane porosity.

  • thickness (float) – Membrane thickness, [m].

  • tortuosity (float) – Membrane tortuosity.

  • Henry (float) – NH3 Henry constant, [atm*m3/mol].

  • Ka (float) – Overall mass transfer coefficient, [m/s].

  • capacity (float) – Membrane treatment capacity (permeate flux), [kg/m2/h].

  • membrane_price (float) – Membrane price, [$/kg] ([$/m2]).


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[2] Doran, P. M. Chapter 11 - Unit Operations. In Bioprocess Engineering

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[6] Al-Obaidani, S.; Curcio, E.; Macedonio, F.; Di Profio, G.; Al-Hinai, H.;

Drioli, E. Potential of Membrane Distillation in Seawater Desalination: Thermal Efficiency, Sensitivity Study and Cost Estimation. Journal of Membrane Science 2008, 323 (1), 85–98.

[7] Kogler, A.; Farmer, M.; Simon, J. A.; Tilmans, S.; Wells, G. F.;

Tarpeh, W. A. Systematic Evaluation of Emerging Wastewater Nutrient Removal and Recovery Technologies to Inform Practice and Advance Resource Efficiency. ACS EST Eng. 2021, 1 (4), 662–684.

[8] Pikaar, I.; Guest, J.; Ganigue, R.; Jensen, P.; Rabaey, K.; Seviour, T.;

Trimmer, J.; van der Kolk, O.; Vaneeckhaute, C.; Verstraete, W.; Resource Recovery from Water: Principles and Applicaiton. IWA 2022.

line: str = 'Membrane distillation'

class-attribute Name denoting the type of Unit class. Defaults to the class name of the first child class